In this article, we read about types of fruit trees. Many types or species of fruit trees to choose from, but not all are suitable for the cold climate or short growing season. When choosing a fruit tree for a new orchard, consider its winter hardiness, disease resistance and the ripening date of the fruit. Flavor, suitability for baking, cider or preserves can also be deciding factors in selection.
Types of Fruit Trees
- Northern regions typically have a short growing season, too short for some apple varieties.
- Braeburn, GoldRush, Granny Smith, Mutsu, Pink Lady, Rome Beauty, and Winesap may not ripen before the first freeze when grown in a short growing season.
- It is possible to grow varieties that ripen after Golden Delicious, but in some years, they may still be on the tree when the first freeze occurs.
- There are two types of cultivated pears, European and Asian.
- European pears have the classic pear shape and are soft when they are ripe.
- Asian pears are typically round in shape and remain crispy when ripe.
- European pears have greater winter hardiness, but less disease resistance than Asian pears.
- Pears are slow to bear fruit and generally grow to a large size.
- Perry pears, a group of European varieties, have traits that make them suitable for fermentation of their juice into perry, an alcoholic beverage that is similar to hard cider.
- Quince is prized by some for its attractive flowers and unique flavor.
- It is closely related to pear, but the fruit have a tough skin and flesh, so they are best used as preserves or jelly.
- They ripen in the fall and require a long growing season, so select varieties that do not require a long season.
- Since it is not widely cultivated, trees are available primarily from specialty nurseries that ship bare root trees in springtime.
- Smyrna, Van Deman, Limon, and Pineapple are names of some quince varieties.
- As a naturally dwarf tree, quince trees require less space than most the fruit trees.
- Plums are the stone fruit along with the cherry, peach, nectarine, apricot and almond.
- Several species of plum exist, so they are highly variable in color and flavor, as well as climactic adaptability and disease resistance.
- In spring, the abundant, white flowers attract native bees.
- Three types of cherry predominate the cultivation of this fruit. Sweet cherry grows into a large tree that blooms early and is very prone to frost damage to its blossoms.
- It is also highly susceptible to disease. Sour cherry, primarily grown for preserves and pies, is naturally a semi dwarf tree with good winter hardiness and greater tolerance of spring freezes.
- The duke cherry, a hybrid of the sweet and sour cherries, has traits common to both.
- These grows into a large tree with flower buds that become tender in spring.
- The fruit remain sour until they are fully ripe.
- Several wild species of cherry exist that are not widely cultivated, but have the potential for growing cherries in the coldest climates.
6. Apricots and Plum-Apricot Hybrids
- Apricot trees are generally hardy through the winter, but quickly become tender as temperatures rise in late winter.
- Consequently, they suffer from winter injury and have a short lifespan in cold climates.
- Plum-apricot hybrids, called the plumcots, and apriums, also have a short life span in the cold regions.
- Spring Satin is the plum-apricot hybrid with fruit that closely resembles a plum, but does not tolerate freeze-thaw cycles of the late winter.